The Rise of Boko Haram

boko.jpg

Photo by: Christians in Pakistan

Gloria Nselle Mopotu

21 August 2015

INTRODUCTION

The field of Peace and Conflict Studies addresses some of the most enduring and intractable problems confronting humanity. It is primarily concerned with an analysis of the origins and nature of violent conflict within and between societies”

By: The University of Otego (MA Peace and Conflict Studies).

The concepts of peace, security and conflict studies, tends to raise great deals of questions, which concern the reasons “why people/communities look to conflict as a means to reach an objective? How do communities go about looking to obtain sustainable peace in their communities and how do they maintain to keep peace? And moreover why is it that some conflicts are seen to be constructive and others destructive” University of Otego (MA Peace and Conflict Studies. If we to talk about conflict, peace and security in the case a particular country then Nigeria for example would be a good case. In Nigeria, Boko Haram insurgency that has caused mass destruction and deaths in Nigeria since 2009 and its neighboring countries such as the Republic of Niger, Cameroon, Chad a recently Benin from 2014. However this in the case of Nigeria violence and instability is not a new thing as the country has been striving for peace for security for decades. Wars like the Biafra in the 1960s war and the recent terrorist attacks by Boko Haram has left Nigeria as a country that are constantly plagued with conflict. Therefore as outsiders, we asks ourselves why is Nigeria constantly in conflict especially internally and what can be done to bring about peace and security to its people and communities?

Looking at conflict in Africa specifically, violence in Sub Saharan Africa has been responsible for the direct deaths of millions of civilians and has contributed significantly to the low levels of human security in the region (Bowd and Chiwanha 2010:10). For many years now, conflict has plagued the lands of Africa and these conflicts, to a large extent stem from economic, political and social issues such as poverty, unemployment, under developed economies, political instability and the non-existence of security by the state for the people (Bowd and Chiwanha 2010:12). As a result, with significant challenges such as these, it makes growth, development and prosperity extremely difficult to achieve. Moreover it is also conflict of the past that makes that can ultimately lead to conflict. For example, the ethnic genocide that stemmed out of the country of Rwanda where the Hutsi’s assassinated, tortured and massacred the Tutsi ethnic group and to this very day, some of the issues of the past still continue to hinder Rwanda’s growth and prosperity. Another case and point is in Nigeria where the Boko Haram has forced their way into the South part of Nigerian where they blame the predominantly Christian government for not caring about the people in the North region who are Islamic. In affect this cam be seen as an ethnic conflict as it deals with the controversial issues of religion to a certain extent.

Conflicts is not just a phenomenon in the African continent but it is indeed a crisis that is occurring all over the world and these conflicts that are taking place in the modern world mostly involved some sort of terrorist group whether it be Al Shabab, Al Khaida, ISIS or even Boko Haram. Therefore as spectators, we tent to ask ourselves what the government of these communities are doing wrong for such conflicts to even come about. Furthermore is it even the government’s fault that such Islamic militant groups have raised to the surface? Irrespective of who is to blame for the birth of conflicts in a country, it is a serious issue that needs to be address in hope finding a way to come to a more peaceful and swifter resolution.

This essay will focus particularly focus on the conflict that is taking place in Nigeria by the Islamic Military group known as Boko Haram, which is causing a security threat in Nigeria. The essay will attempt to approve the idea that Boko Haram represents the greatest security threat since that Nigeria has faced since The Biafra War. Although the extremist actions and violations by Boko Haram has not been declared a civil war, the extent and magnitude of abuse of human rights, violence and mass killings in Nigeria and her neighboring countries by the insurgent group has traumatized civilians and left them fearing for their lives as this militant Islamic group still continues to use heavy weapons and bombs to disturb the peace and cause instability.

By adopting the social theory of conflict as a basic framework, the essay will attempt to achieve this by firstly, introducing what the Biafra war was and how it posed as a security threat to Nigeria in correlation with Boko Haram. Secondly the essay will highlight and compare the difference between the Northern region of Nigeria as well as the Southern region to show why Boko Haram specifically chose to target that part of the region. Thirdly the essay will offer an explanation of the role and intention of Boko Haram in Nigeria and discuss why the pose a security threat in Nigeria. Moreover it will also discuss how the Nigerian government as gone about attempting to address the issue of Boko Haram. Fourthly, the essay will talk about the countries that are directly affected by Boko Haram as well as what the African Union as well as ECOWAS are doing to undertake the concept of counter-terrorism. Lastly, the essay will provide a critical analysis and a concise conclusion that will summarize the essay in its entirety.

Factors that Evoke Conflict in Africa

The cold war led to the emergence of East-West spheres of influence in Africa (2001:7). A system of client states emerged in which for their allegiances to one of the super powers (2001:1). It was then that, countries like Zaire and Somalia started to breed corrupt leadership in their government. Internal conflict increased throughout the 1990s (2001:7). The civilian population increasingly became the target of conflict in fractional wars and subjected to particularly high level of violence and abuse (Bowden 2001:2). In essence this is when the non-stop amounts on conflict in Africa broke out, making their civilian population feel unsecure and not at peace. Countries began to lose their political and economic stability and peace and security were beginning to diminish greatly. Presented below are some of the tragic influences that have contributed to the theory of conflict in Africa:

1. There is some corruption in all government and in the public service of all countries. Some countries however suffer from a greater degree of corruption than others (McMullan 1961:181). Throughout most of their known history corruption has been an accepted feature of life (McMullan 1961:181). Corruption is one of the major key players for conflict in Africa because it brings political instability and injustice. Furthermore it leads to a huge volume of poverty and public outbreaks. This is particularly evident in the Democratic Republic of Congo where there is a huge percentage of unemployment and thus the percentage of poverty too is a high as a result of the rate of unemployment. This started by the two of the DRC’s former dictators Mobutu and Laurent Kabila, as they capitalized on the countries public funds by transferring these funds into their own pockets and only distributing a very small portion to the members of their cabinet (King and Lawrence 2005:1). As a result of this level of corruption, violence and civil war breakout in the DRC which ultimately left the countries in shambles (King and Lawrence 2005:1). The civil war escalated during the Kabila administration and lasted until his death by his very own police officer.

2. Culture and Ethnicity difference is also another major player for conflict in Africa. Above anything else the difference in culture and ethnicity is the primary cause of conflict in Africa which ultimate lead to civil wars that span over many years. Terrible levels of ethnic violence and genocide, as witnessed in Rwanda and Burundi, re-emerged in the late decade of the century (Luckman et al 2001:8). In Africa when it comes to the idea of ethnic different the genocide that took place in Rwanda comes to everyone’s mind, as it was one of the biggest genocides to ever take place of the face of the earth. The Hutu extremists, in the early 1990s, blamed the Tutsi population for the Rwanda increase of economic, political and social coercion. Moreover the Tutsi were also being accused of being in support of their rebel group who, were a dominant rebel group, known as the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) (Van Haperen 1994:4). What made matters worse was that Habyarimana who was the president of Rwanda at the time increased and encouraged the division between the Hutu and Tutsi group (Van Haperen 1994:4).

Immediately after the death of Habyarimana, war in Rwanda broke out which resulted in the death of almost 800,00 mean, women and children of the Tutsi population.

3. The conflict and racism where black people were oppressed and made a complete mockery of was in South Africa known as Apartheid. The Apartheid regime saw the oppression of black people by white supremacy and domination. For many years black people were deprived the opportunity to education, equality and freedom of speech. Moreover black people were prohibited to the some rights that white people were given. This aggregated black people and thus conflict broke up. For example, in June 16 1976 the Soweto uprising saw the marched and protest of students for better education opportunities. At the time, students were protesting with signs that read “Down with Bantu education and Afrikaans”. Democracy was granted in 1994 where the ANC ruled South Africa and continues to do so till this day

It is noticed that a most of the conflicts and wars that take place in Africa are internal conflicts as oppose to external conflicts, which indicates a lack of integration in most parts of African countries. Ethnicity, religion, corruption and politics just to name a few has constantly caused conflict in countries and as a result and thus peace and security are not at its peak and for some countries are non existed at all.

INSURGENCY GROUPS DEFINED

Insurgency is a protected political-military struggle directed toward subverting or displacing the legitimacy of constituted government or occupying power and completely or partially controlling the resources of territory through the use of irregular military forces and illegal political organizations (US Government 2012:1).

The common denominator for most insurgent groups is their objective of gaining control of a population or a particular territory, including its resources (US Government 2012:1). An example of insurgency group in the world is Al Shabab, Al Qaida and Boko Haram just to name a few.

Common characteristics of insurgency is that they seek to undercut the ability of the government to provide the population security and public service (US Government 2012:1), they seek to obtain the active or passive support of the population (US Government 2012:1), they provoke the government into committing abuses that drive neutral civilians toward the insurgent and solidify the loyalty of insurgent supporters and finally they seek to undermine international support for the government and if possible gain international recognition or assistance for the insurgency (US Government 2012:1).

Brief Summary of The Biafra War

In July 6, 1976 war broke out between Nigeria and Biafra. The start of this war was led by the Nigerian military troops that attacked the city of Ogoja in Biafra and the purpose of this unexpected attack was to crust Biafran independence in what was called “ as police action” (Shillington 2004:pna).

This particular war, also known as the Nigerian Civil War, was in one of if not the most gruesome to ever exist in Nigeria. In its 3-year duration, this war killed nearly one million men, women and children mainly at the hands of the Nigerian military. This war began, in my opinion, is one the was stemmed from greed and jealousy but also that of selfishness and the need for the Biafran people to disintegrate from the rest of Nigeria in choosing to seek independence and thus the “Independent of Biafra” was declared which is situated in the southeastern region of Nigeria.

After the Biafra was declared as independent the Nigerian government attempted to resolved the indifference of both Biafra and Nigeria through means of negotiation through communication however this method to resolve their conflict failed and thus a few months after this, the Nigerian federal government in Lagos launched “a full-scale” invasion into Biafra (Shillington 2004:pna). Moreover the Nigerian Navy, also established a sea blockade that denied food, medical supplies and weapons again impacting Biafran soldiers and civilians alike (Shillington 2004:pna). However these set backs and hindrances did not stop Biafra from surrendering to the Nigerian military and their domination. Unfortunately, days, months and even years went by the Nigerian military slowly started to take of the Biafran territory one by one to the point where there was almost nothing really left for the Biafran government and its people and as a result in January 15, 970 the civil war eventually ended when the Biafran military commander General Chukweneka Odumegwu left to Cote d’Ivoire in exile.

During the war, an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 people died daily from starvation due to the Naval blockade thus making this war a war of civil struggle (Shillington 2004:pna). The Biafran struggle was a fragmented affair in which infiltration; weapons of terror and local grievances played a key part (Shillington 2004:pna). In this sense Boko Haram is not as far detached from the wars of the past as some might like to think(Shillington 2004:pna). Long running issues of regional and political representation lie at the heart of today’s violence.

However more this will be explained as the essay starts to unfold.

The Biafra war caused a security threat in Nigeria for many reasons but the few main reasons was that firstly, there was a division in the two provinces and as a result, there was a divide and disintegration in Nigeria. Secondly, ethnic hostility as the Nigerian Igbo military wanted to gain national domination of Nigeria. Thirdly human rights of people were infringed upon where people in Biafra were deprived food and medical care and also by for the Nigerian people who were forced to comply with the rules of the war-freedom of speech was irrelevant. As a result of all of this, no one in Nigeria was safe at the time thus the Biafra war caused a great security to Nigeria.

Boko Haram

Who, When and Why?

Boko Haram was founded in 2002 carrying the official name of Jama’atu Ahlis Sana Ludda’awati-wal Jihad, which means ‘people that are committed to the propaganda of the Prophet’s teachings, and Jihad’. In essence Boko Haram means “Western education id forbidden”. As a means of opposing western education in the beginning, Boko Haram was born from the northern region of Nigeria, and in 2009 they launched military operation to create an Islamic state (Brown 2014:1). The members of Boko were primarily poor people as well as unemployed Muslim youth in the Northeast (Brown 2014:1).

Boko Haram is based in the North region of Nigeria and this is where they operated. In the north side of Nigeria, that is where it is predominantly a Muslim based region as oppose to the south region for example, which is predominantly Christian, based.

Nigeria is known to have a large percentage of cultural, ethnic and linguistic division and as a result Nigeria has frequently experienced uncertain peace (Brown 2014:1). This diversity has fundamentally made Nigeria a difficult nation to govern in which the struggle for political power between the Christians and the Muslims remains a significant factor in the ongoing unrest (Brown 2014:1).

The North region of Nigeria, furthermore, is one of the poorest regions of the entire nation with high rates of 70% of unemployment and poverty. When compared to the south side of the Nigeria there is a low of 20% who are unemployed therefore in the south region people are more financially stable which than that of the people living in the north. Boko Haram saw this as an issue and thus they wanted to address the level of poverty and unemployment that plagued their region, especially because Nigeria has had a long history of Islamic leaders who originated from the north region, and this too was enforced by the British who thought these leaders who more real and authentic in their leadership (Brown 2014:1). At independence, the British designed the Nigerian electoral guarantee the continued dominance of the northern Muslim elites (Brown 2014:1). It was in the 2000s where matters started to change for Nigeria as a political and economic took place that resulted in a new government from the South and this also saw an economic boom in the south region. The events of democracy had changed and this aggravated and frustrated the north region. In addition, the Shari ‘a Law increased in the north where people believed that this law prevented crime and put and end to political corruption.

Declared Objectives and Grievances

“The emergence of Boko Haram signifies the maturation of long-fastening extremist impulse that run deep in the social reality of northern Nigeria (Ngwodo 201:pna). But the group itself is an effect and not a cause; it is a symptom of decades of failed government and elite delinquency finally ripening into social chaos” said Chris Ngwodo. By Ngwodo’s statement about the appearance of Boko Haram, he strongly illustrates that the existence of the insurgent movement is deeply rooted in grievances over poor governance and sharp inequality on the Nigerian society. These grievances include economy grievances such as unemployment and poverty recently mentioned, political grievances as the corrupt government in Nigeria and the western education in which being imposed on Muslim students. Furthermore, there is a large discrepancy of wealth in the country and oil plays a huge role in this. With a maximum crude oil production capacity of 2.5 million barrels a day, Nigeria ranks as Africa’s largest producer of oil and the sixth largest oil producing company in the world (NNPC 2015:pna). Therefore where is the income that is coming from oil going to? Why are people are the nation as a whole not benefiting equally from this? It is issues like these that aggravates Boko Haram and contributes greatly to their extremist ways.

All these grievances that have led to the rise of Boko Haram stem from the past and are issues that Nigeria needs to address if they hope to eve again some peace and look forward to prosperity for all in the country.

Boko Haram Attacks in Nigeria

The attacks of Boko Haram in Nigeria dates back 2009 where there was a confrontation between Boko Haram and the Nigerian army and police. This was a grand battle in itself as the Nigerian army as well as police used heavy weapons in attempt to put an end to the attacks caused by Boko Haram (Mojeed 2015:pna), the significance of the police and army’s strategy in fighting against Boko Haram gave people hope that this insurgence group could have been defeated at that very moment as videos streamed YouTube which indicated that Boko Haram was too weak for the Nigerian army and police.

However, in 2010 Boko had resurface and gathered new troops and followers and with this new movement they began to carry out significantly more sophisticated attacks on the government (Mojeed 2015:pna), including in 2011attacks on the United Nations Headquarters in the capital of Abuja (Mojeed 2015:pna).

The extent of Boko Haram’s attacks in Nigeria had become so extreme and uncontrollable that in 2013, Nigeria’s former president Goodluck Jonathan had declared “a state of emergency in three north eastern states as militant Islamist intensify their offensive against government” (Mojeed 2015:pna) .

Since the debut of the insurgency, Boko Haram has killed at least 2000 people in 2009. It has spread cross the Muslim north and central Nigeria through the years. But since 2014, Boko Haram has spread throughout Nigeria’s neighboring countries such as, the republic of Niger, Cameroon, Chad and recently Benin.

It was the kidnapping of 200 girls from schools that grabbed the worlds attention and but Boko Haram on a very high pedestal by giving the global recognition. In April 2014, the insurgency captured 200 girls from their school. The intention of these kidnaps was to make the Nigerian government aware of the extent that Boko Haram would go to in order to see the government full to their knees. At first the intention was to get the government to release some of the Boko Haram followers and their leader at the time and but eventually this become a means to overthrow the ‘corrupt’ government by enforcing the Shara’a Law.

Boko Haram has recently waged new attacks on a series of towns and villages resulting in the death of at least 160 people (Al Jazeera 20125:pna). In July 2015 alone, Boko Haram fighters have killed 13 people in the Maringa village in the northeast of Nigeria’s Borno state (Al Jazeera 20125:pna). Furthermore, in the town of Kukawa, 145 worshippers were killed just they were preparing to break their fast (Al Jazeera 20125:pna).

There is a vast series of attacks that have been implemented by Boko Haram fighters that are too many to mention however the magnitude of these attacks in Nigeria as well as beyond strong emphasizes Boko Haram’s desperation for, in my opinion, ‘a new Nigeria’. I say this because from the start, Boko Haram has been unhappy with the Nigerian government feeling that they have abandoned the north region of Nigeria due to the economic instability, which has led many hungry, and job less and these issues have been around for a very long time where no efforts have been made in attempt resolve the matter. This has caused ager and frustration from the Muslim side as Boko Haram feels that the government simply does not care and this why is the Nigerian government is viewed as corrupt and must be out down in the eyes of Boko Haram.

Social theory derived from conflict theory best defines Boko Haram and the situation that they have caused in Nigeria and throughout Africa because it refers to an insurgent group that is a role of conflict as social theory refers to the common usage to interaction in which the means by the parties in pursuit of their goals are likely to inflict damage, harm or injury (Anthony 1978: 298).

Countries Directly Affected by Boko Haram

In the November 2014, Boko Haram launched a series of attacks in north eastern Nigeria, capturing several towns near Lake Chad and running raids into neighboring Chad and Cameroon in early 2015. Hundreds of people in the north east are killed and thousands more displaced

Cameroon is one of the countries that have been attacked by Boko Haram. Cameroon is can be found in central Africa and is bordered by Nigeria to the West, Chad and Central African Republic. The border of Cameroon of Kousseri was hit by two suicide attacks this year in June by men who were suspected to be Boko Haram fighters. Ever since the incident, authorities in Cameroon’s far north have taken significant steps to boost security, including banning women from wearing the full-face veil amid fear that suicide bombers could use the garment to conceal explosives (Mail online 2015:pna). Moreover in Karonic, more than 300 Cameroonian children were removed from their Koranic schools in Macau and taken back to their villages (Mail online 2015:pna).

Nigeria based Boko Haram have carried out their first attack inside Chad, killing as many as 10 people in an early morning strike non a village and military camp on the shores of Lake Chad. Chadian military aircraft carried out airstrikes against the fighters, destroying vessels, the security sources added.

In the border town of Fotokol, Boko Haram had launched their first attack on the small town, killing over 70 people. In response to Boko Haram’s gruesome attacks on the town, the Niger government killed over 100 of the insurgent fighters

ECOWAS & THE UNITED NATIONS

Countries of the Economic Community of West African States also known as ECOWAS have faced some of the most daunting security challenges any region in Africa has had especially from civil wars (Bamfo 2013: 12). Like the rest of the Africa the countries in West Africa seldom go to with their neighbor despite Africa having some infamous irredentist wars (Bamfo 2013: 12). The major security problem that countries to threaten West African countries has been internal squabbles breaking out among ethnic groups or between regions with the central government over policy (Bamfo 2013: 12). Therefore it is only right and obvious that ECOWAS would be the main organization to step in and lay a firm hand on the situation of Boko Haram group and the acts of violence and extremism employed upon the people of Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger and Chad.

As Boko Haram have adopted extreme measures to cause harm and violence, ECOWAS have to take precautions when dealing with Boko Haram as a method to firstly, feed into their aggression any further which will cause them to perform more and if not greater damages than the ones already done them so that they don’t continue to cause damage and secondly so that they strategy that they eventually come up with puts and end to Boko Haram and their mission a whole. As a result of this, negotiations, summits and partnerships have been formed in hope on combating and fighting extremists violence and attacks caused by Boko Haram.

Firstly, ECOWAS and the Economic Community of Central Africa States (ECAS) have joined forces by organizing summit, which was held on The 15th March 2015 to discuss method, and strategies that will assist in putting on end to the Boko Haram era. The meeting reached and agreement between President John Mahama and his Chadian counterpart General Iddris. President Mahama indicated that Ghana and Chad would set up a joint commission to foster health bilateral relationship adding, “we also discussed issues of bilateral interests.

Furthermore ECOWAS has asked for greater international mobilization to step in and put an end to terrorism and violent extremism in Nigeria. This call was especially made as a result of the attacks that Boko Haram set out against civilians in Nigeria according to the News 24 Nigeria on the 7th July 2015.

On the 6th May 2014, the United Nations condemned the militant group for kidnapping more than 200 girls at school. Moreover on the morning on 20 March 2015, the UN Security Council met to discuss threats to international peace and security caused by terrorism, top UN officials briefed the IS member body on the impact of Boko Harm in Nigeria and beyond; warning of the groups intensified violence and brutality.

“The humanitarian situation in north-east Nigeria and in the conflict-affected areas in neighboring countries remains dire, sad Ms. Kang. “The conflict continues to have devastating impact on women, children and young people, as well as many others who have been traumatized by violence” said Ms. Kang of the UN.

In addition the Peace and Security Council of the African Union at its 489th meeting held 3 March 2015, adopted many decisions on the regional and international efforts to combat Boko Haram.

The 15 member security council also strongly advised the affected countries of Boko Haram attacks to enhance military operations and coordination more effectively in the hope of combating Boko Haram.

Critical Analysis

The Biafra experience and the extremist group that is Boko Haram in Nigeria is a metaphor for the many unresolved problems that confront Nigeria (Onumah 2014:pna).  From the very moment that Nigeria received its independent from the British colonies it has never really integrated with Biafra and this is where the problem all began. The mere fact that Nigeria, in the 1960s, did not want to accept to Biafra as an independent state illustrates the province’s dye need to rule and impose domination under one federal government and those that were unwilling to comply resulted in alienated which ultimately led to war.

In correlation to Boko Haram, the Nigerian government has truly neglected the north region where they reside. In other words the north side felt that alienated by the Nigerian government and this is one of the factors that contributed to the rise of Boko Haram.

The Biafra war involved Biafra and Nigeria. The Boko Haram came from the north side of Nigeria. I effect, these are both internal conflict that have invaded Nigeria leaving more than 200,000 dead in Biafra and over one million throughout the six years of Boko Haram’s existent. Boko Haram still continue to spread it terrorist attacks through Africa as well as Nigeria with the help of other Islamic militant groups from all over Africa. This shows that the Boko Haram insurgent extends far beyond the Nigerian country but internationally too, making the Boko Haram insurgent far more dangerous and greater than the Biafra war. However, irrespective of the magnitude of both these movements, they both cause a massive security threat in Nigeria.

Nigeria will disintegrate entirely if issues from the past are not addressed and dealt with as soon as possible. This is the only way that Nigeria will have a chance to experience peace and stability. Many of the faults and tensions continue to play a role in the present day crisis of Nigeria (Lawman 2014:pna). In the 1960’s, unrest of education was a problem. Attempts to spread Christianity and the schooling the often accompanied it had been resisted and prevented under British colonial regime (Lawman 2014:pna). In the present time, Boko Haram is fighting against the implementation of western education in the north region. Moreover the grievances that Boko Haram is fighting for needs to be addressed.

For peace to exist in a country, one of the key features that need to be occur is equality and opportunity for all. Nigeria does not seem to live by that notion although they are a democratic country. Although it is the most populous country in the whole of Africa, it also has some of the poorest people and a huge percentage of these people come from north where poverty and unemployment is incredibly high. To the rest of the world, this seems as though, this seems to be extremely unfair and undemocratic, and although Boko Haram is going about matters in the wrong way, its not very hard to fully comprehend their motive.

Not only is Nigeria affected by the terrorist attacks and violations of Boko Haram’s radical ways but other countries are being attacked due to the Nigerian governments lack of willingness to address the grievances that Boko Haram is fighting for. It is also through the governments unsuccessful strategies of attempting to bring down Boko Haram, that they refuse to negotiate with Boko Haram as they don’t want to seem weak in the eyes of their people and the world and so with this sad, the only way to stop Boko Haram fro furthering their attacks is to address the unresolved issues of the past. This too is the only way that Nigeria will then begin to integrate, alleviating conflict and insuring peace and security.

Conclusion

The Biafra war caused a massive terrorist attack in Nigeria at the time of its existence. It left Nigeria broken into pieces, leaving over 200,00 people dead and others fearing for their lives. The war left Nigeria in shambles as the country struggled to move forward successfully as differences in ethnicity and culture caused separation and division in the nation. Nigeria has experienced other conflicts after the Biafra war but it is the rise of the insurgent group, Boko Haram that has represented the greatest security threat in Nigeria since the Biafra war. Not only does Nigeria have to worry about the security and protection of her people but that of neighboring countries also effected by Boko Haram. Organizations such as ECOWAS and the UN have stepped in to help but it will not be easy unless the Nigeria government sits back and reflects on the real cause of these issues and address them once and for all.

The issues of Boko Haram is Nigeria’s problem and the only way for the attacks and bombings to end is for the Nigerian government to comba this issue internally and not just relaying on outside sources for assistance as this is a ‘family’ issue.

Bibliography

  1. Al Jazeera. 2015. Nigeria struck by new wave of Boko Haram atrocities
  2. Anthony, O. 1978. Theories of social Conflict. Vol. 4
  3. Bamfo, N. 2013. The Political and Security Challenges facing ECOWAS in the twenty-first century: Testing the limits of an organization reputation. Vol 3. No3
  4. Bowden, M. 2001. Responding to conflict in Africa
  5. Brown, Barbra. 2014. Boko Haram: Behind the Headlines. University of Boston
  6. King, G and Lawrence, V. 2005. Africa, a continent in crisis: The economic and social implications of civil war and unrest among African nationals.
  7. Luckman, T. 2014. Biafra and Boko Haram: Difference conflicts, comments and themes
  8. Luckman. 2001. The Causes of conflict in Africa: Consulted Documents
  9. Mail online. 2015. Boko Haram frees hostages as Chad enters regional fight
  10. Mojeed, M. 2015. Nigerian military recaptures Baga “heavy casualties’ in battle
  11. Ngwodo, C. 2010. Revolution by other means
  12. Onumah, C. 2014. Biafra, June 16 and Boko Haram and the future of Nigeria. Issue 685
  13. Shillington, K.2004. Encyclopedia of African. New York
  14. US Government. 2012. Guide to the analysis of insurgency

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